The Circle

December 12, 2019 –– January 20, 2020

Nancy Hoffman Gallery is pleased to showcase works by Ilan Averbuch, Timothy Cummings, Rupert Deese, Gregory Halili, Hung Liu, Nicole Phungrasamee Fein, and Joseph Raffael

The word circle derives from Greek, closely related to the words circuit and circus. The circle has been known since before the beginning of recorded history. Natural circles would have been observed, such as the Moon, Sun, and a short plant stalk blowing in the wind on sand, which forms a circle shape in the sand. The circle is the basis for the wheel, which, with related inventions such as gears, makes much of modern machinery possible. In mathematics, the study of the circle has helped inspire the development of geometry, astronomy and calculus. 

Early science, particularly geometry and astrology and astronomy, was connected to the divine for most medieval scholars, and many believed that there was something intrinsically "divine" or "perfect" that could be found in circles.  In Plato's Seventh Letter there is a detailed definition and explanation of the circle. Plato explains the perfect circle, and how it is different from any drawing, words, definition or explanation.


Ilan Averbuch
Timothy Cummings
Rupert Deese
Gregory Halili
Hung Liu
Joseph Raffael